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Monday, November 27, 2023

Agriculture dynamics of Pakistan: Issues and recommendations

Agriculture provides food and livelihoods to approximately 68% of the population in rural areas. At the present time, Pakistan's economy is about to be fragile and Pakistan needs to get out of this situation that agriculture is the major contributor to the growth of Pakistan’s economy. So that Pakistan needs to reconstruct the policy according to the situation and current world order to be strong economically.

Agriculture contributes significantly to Pakistan’s economy. Water scarcity and drought, long-term load shedding issues, insufficient advising services, a lack of land reforms, a failure to disseminate approved varieties, excessive fertilizer prices, and intentions. Use of adulterated pesticides, which are not approved and have expired, as well as the use of cultivable insecticides, is prohibited. Farmer’s indirect connection to the main market, undeveloped land, and traditional agricultural techniques.

Smuggling of inputs and agricultural goods, and a lack of an ecological culture model agricultural research, education, and advisory services are not cooperating, and there is a shortage of information. Crop insurance, forest degradation, a lack of sophisticated post-harvest technologies, and disease are all issues that need to be addressed. Poultry outbreaks are one of the most serious issues that have a negative impact on Pakistan’s agriculture industry is being downgraded. Pakistan is an agricultural country, with agricultural output covering 80 million hectares (Mha) of the total land area.

In the previous three decades, there has been a huge rise in acreage, with the cultivated area increasing from 16.62 Mha to 22.15 Mha between 1971 and 2003, however, due to fast population expansion, per capita land availability has declined considerably. In the foreseeable future, the predicted yearly growth rate paints a bleak picture for agriculture. Agriculture is responsible for the earth’s preservation. This sector makes the largest contribution to the country’s economy, accounting for 21% of GDP and employing more than 48.4% of the total workforce. Crops make for 60% of agriculture’s overall contribution to GDP, while livestock and forests account for 40%. Pakistan’s agriculture industry is also suffering.

Read more: Modi surrenders before Sikhs, announces to repeal agriculture laws

Theoretical Framework

Pakistan is an agro-based country. There is a significant contribution to GDP. So in the twenty-first century wars cannot fight on the ground between the states. States peruse the maximization of power especially economically. A state like Pakistan who is rich in resources and fertile soil  I linked with the Constructivism theory of the international world. As we know that major chunk of the population is linked with agriculture directly and indirectly. Agriculture is the backbone of the Pakistani economy and is an important contributor to food security. It contributes approximately 20.9%  to Pakistan’s national GDP  and accounts for approximately 60% of foreign currency income.

Agriculture provides food and livelihoods to approximately 68% of the population in rural areas. At the present time, Pakistan’s economy is about to be fragile and Pakistan needs to get out of this situation that agriculture is the major contributor in the growth of Pakistan’s economy. So that Pakistan needs to reconstruct the policy according to the situation and current world order to be strong economically.

Understanding the matter better

Pakistan is a developing state and there is a significant amount of GDP comes from this sector. There are almost 45% population is directly or indirectly linked to the agriculture sector. There are some issues and problems that Pakistan’s agriculture sector face since independence. Every government in Pakistan cannot take serious these problems of the Agriculture sector. The main problems are as follows:

Water deficiency and drought were formerly a land with an abundance of water. The region is increasingly gaining notoriety as a land with a water deficit. The Indus is also renowned as Pakistan’s economic backbone, owing to its abundant supply of water. Agriculture receives 90% of the water contribution. In the same way as other emerging countries, Pakistan’s population is likewise rising quicker and louder over the world. According to projections, the country’s population will reach 250 million people by 2025.

This will gradually diminish the amount of water available per capita. that the contentious Baglihar dam, as well as a potential shortage of 32%, might result in a dramatic decline in food consumption, production and shortages of 70 million tons of food are predicted by 2025. This is one of Pakistan’s most serious agricultural issues.

Read more: Afghans facing “food emergency” as drought crushes agriculture: UN

Poor extension services: Agricultural expansion is one of the driving forces behind increased agricultural output, which is achieved via the transmission of new technologies to farmers, and, as a result, enhances the national economy. Developing countries, however, are failing to transmit technology to farmers, and the situation is getting worse. Traditional legacy extension services are capable of meeting the demands of current crop production and crop protection.

Absence of land reforms: Land reforms are changes in laws and regulations enacted by the government to ensure a consistent nationwide transfer of ownership of agricultural land. Subsidies and other government incentives for farmers assist landowners and farmers, while the small farmer loses as a result of the absence of land reform in Pakistan. About 2% of the country’s area is under the hands of just a few families. Progressive and inspired by politics.

Farmers have also benefited from government subsidies in the agriculture and water sectors, as well as technological advancements that have increased the returns on their large farms, while small farmers are unable to take advantage of these benefits. Absence of land reforms also results in negative changes in society, such as a rise in poverty and, as a result, an increase in undesirable conduct.

There is a scarcity of quality seeds due to a lack of a distribution network. Poor seed quality has a significant influence on germination and overall plant life, particularly in the case of wheat, which is a major grain in Pakistan. Provincial

High-quality seeds should be sold by seed companies: Because of the low level, Certified seeds are available, however there are fewer local seed suppliers and the quality is low. Agriculture has a poor productivity per unit area when it comes to seeds. Poor people’s accessibility in Pakistan, one of the biggest issues of contemporary agriculture is the lack of high-quality seeds.

High fertilizer prices and corporate monopoly: The high prices of fertilizers are mainly due to rising natural gas prices and the fertilizer monopoly of Companies operating in Pakistan. The increase in the general natural gas sales tax is also a reason for this price increase. Rising gas prices has a direct impact on the price per bag of any fertilizer, especially urea, the species used in agriculture. Due to the increase in the price of those fertilizers that the average farmer does not give on his own initiative and therefore low yieldscause financial pressures and other problems. Urea exchanges are expected for the peak in the present season, which will be daunting overall effect the farmer community in Pakistan.

Conventional agricultural practices: Conventional farming methods pay off the owner compared to modern practices. Replacing the conventional is perhaps a major obstacle

Methods with modern methods: Traditional practices are in developing countries like Pakistan and these practices are mainly due to small farmers because the small farmer cannot bear the costs of the operation and leads to a low yield per unit of area.Indirect access for the farmer to the main market. Intervention through intermediaries is one of the most obstacles to the improvement of the socioeconomic status of small landowners. So which is why the farmer is not getting the real price for his hard work and input. Small farmers are unable to enter the market and obtain the rate corresponding to the original price of the commodity.

Non-cooperation between modern research and popularization: the latest search feeds the farmer is not immediate, mainly due to the lack of collaboration in consulting and research.

Read more: Chili farming under CPEC set to boost agriculture sector

Divisions working separately in Pakistan.Lack of organized crop insurance. If lost by a heavy insect attack, epidemic, flood, fire, etc. There is no insurance plan for small batches

Holder. The farmer suffers from these losses and ultimately agriculture suffers.

Lack of modern post-harvest technologies. Post-harvest losses are significant

Influential factors determine the final production of a country. Pakistan is facing serious problems post-harvest losses due to poor infrastructure, lack of modern storage facilities, limitation of processing unit and slow transport.

Free smuggling of agricultural products: Among the crops is wheat and rice, while urea  is smuggled into fertilizersmore than any other agricultural product. Due to the war in Afghanistan, this is it the problem has grown significantly and is upsetting the agricultural sector.

Outbreaks in poultry. New castle poultry disease, bird flu and avian flu disease are

it is one of the deadliest diseases, which infects the entire population in a very short time. These diseases contribute to the decline in per capita income availability of proteins.


  • Construction of dams. The construction of a large dam such as the Kala Bagh Dam is the only one Solution for long-term support of the agricultural sector. Small projects like Gomal Dam (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Grand Canal Thal (Punjab), Canal Rainee (Sindh), Kachhi
  • Canal (Baluchistan), Mangla Dam elevation (AJ&K), Satpara Dam (Skardu) and right bank and fill discharges (RBODs) are some of the ongoing projects that are and maybe under construction help solve this problem. Now the government is focusing to overcome the water scarcity in fiscal year 2021-22 there is 90 billion rupees is used for the construction of different dams.
  • Privatization of the expansion in Pakistan. The expansion into developing countries has proved successful be ineffective and lacking in many active aspects. Thus, the privatization of consulting services appears to be, and ultimately lead to, a perfect solution. A demand-driven system that leads to efficient and high-quality agricultural production across the country. The best example of privatization is the pesticide sector where more than 320 companies operate in Punjab, Pakistan. These companies not only inform about pesticides, but also general rural education consultancy service[5].
  • Implementing fair agricultural reforms. Land reforms might look like this key element to reduce poverty and empowering poor farmers with small ones land ownership. Landless farmers should have the opportunity to improve their social situation State. A major political and legal intervention is needed to fight it. Overcome the feudal system prevalent throughout the country. Marketing of certified seeds at subsidized prices. The government of Pakistan should take a strong lead in the marketing and marketing of certified seeds depending on the different areas and the local cultivation patterns prevailing in that particular area. That the federal seed certification body should put the seeds in root plan.
  • Availability of natural gas for the fertilizer sector. Natural gas is the only raw material used in the fertilizer industry and it is necessary to supply subsidized gas to the fertilizer sector. The demand from fertilizer companies is an uninterrupted supply of gaslower the price of a lot of fertilizer. New success of the Iran-Pak pipeline project will further reduce the demand for fertilizers in natural gas Industry
  • Promotion of research-based agriculture. Research-based agricultural practices are being improved agricultural production. Modern agricultural practices have a major impact on this productivity and farmers should adopt them, but this is never possible without participation the government.
  • Discourage mediators from meddling. The role of intermediaries should be discouraged promote the grassroots farming community. In this way, the low becomes the farmer will get the best price and the country’s economic situation will improve.
  • Promotion of the cultivation system based on ecological zones. This increases the overall value produced per unit of surface mainly due to the suitability of the environment with respect to the whole production.
  • Control the smuggling of agricultural products. Border troop intervention and Security checks across the country can help control this problem. Now the Pakistani government is also taking some serious measures on the cross-border movement of agricultural products, especially wheat, to increase their availability at a constant price level and strengthen the research-expansion link.
  • Yield-oriented agriculture based on new research should farmers who perform well and have higher yields should be encouraged and incentivized to introduce new technologies promotion of controlled environment hangars. The surrounding rooms checked must be funded by the government to help farmers transition from conventional barns to modern barns Vaccines for poultry and other medications should be available to address some of the serious diseases in this poultry sector. Farmers must understand the importance of control halls and subsidies for the necessary raw materials and equipment build these advanced structures.


Pakistan is an agro-based country and problems related to this important sector are emerging threats to the global economy and the strategic situation. In the long-term context, the present situation is alarming as the higher authorities have no interest in it important sector. The implementation of the practical tips in this review will surely Pakistan’s agricultural GDP increase.

Read more: Statistics show Pakistan posted historically high Agriculture yields in FY21

As we know that Pakistan is rich in resources and fertile soil so take initiative on a national level and introduced new reforms in the agriculture sector to increase the yield of crops and production. Pakistan majorly exports agricultural good, when the production increase Definity exports increase and come revenue in the economic circle. There are 80 Mha land in total and 22 Mha used for cultivation now the time at the national level take initiative to fertile and able to use for cultivation. In the end, rural population is in majority in Pakistan and mostly people interlink with agriculture when the agriculture sector grows definitely this population get beneficial from this growth and that also directly grows Pakistan’s economy.


Jazib Ali is a student at National Defense University, Islamabad. He is currently pursuing a bachelor’s degree in Strategic Studies. His areas of interest include traditional and non-traditional security issues, national security and Threat perception of Pakistan and International politics. He can be contacted at jazibali419@gmail.com.

The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Global Village Space.