| Welcome to Global Village Space

Monday, July 15, 2024

Climate Change: Past, Present and Future

As greenhouse gas emissions blanket the Earth, they trap the sun’s heat. This leads to global warming and climate change. The world is now warming faster than at any point in recorded history. Warmer temperatures over time are changing weather patterns and disrupting the usual balance of nature. This poses many risks to human beings and all other forms of life on Earth.

A report compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) under the direction of the United Nations Secretary-General highlighted some alarming indicators. According to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration continues to rise, despite emissions reductions in 2020 resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. In 2021, global fossil CO2 emissions returned to 2019 pre-pandemic levels after a significant but temporary drop in emissions due to widespread lockdowns.

It also noted that climate change made extreme heat and floods in 2022 worse; and warned that tipping points in the climate system could not be ruled out as global temperature increases. It also predicted that at least one year from 2022 to 2026 will be the hottest on record. The seven years from 2015-2021 were the warmest years on record. CO2 emissions in early 2022 were higher than pre-pandemic levels in early 2019. While the countries announce their pledges to combat the climate crisis, this report suggests that these pledges need to be increased by seven times to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees.

Read more: Agriculture Growth in the wake of Climate Change

Understanding the matter better

Before delving deep into this discourse, there is a need to understand what caused climate change. The outcomes of this report tell us that whatever we are pledging and doing to fight climate change is not enough, and much more needs to be done if we have to avert this crisis walloping us. However, the question is can we solve this crisis? Moreover, if there was any such precedent when we dealt with the immense problem. Why is it so difficult to solve the imminent existential threat, not for one community but all?

For thousands of years, the concentration of CO2 has been varying inconsistently throughout history. It was only ten thousand years ago when it stabilized for reasons not found yet and created an atmosphere livable for humans, and civilization started prospering. However, many human interventions, notably the Industrial Revolution, altered the environmental condition and disturbed the natural balance. The use of fossil fuels to meet the growing needs of the burgeoning population resulted in an increase in the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere.

These gases trap heat and keep it from entering back into space. In this way, these gases cause a global atmospheric temperature rise, called global warming. The bad situation was worsened by disproportionate land use, deforestation, and excessive use of fertilizers. Since the beginning of evolution, the atmospheric temperature has risen about 1.2oC. It is expected to rise by 4oC to 5oC by 2100 if no serious measures are taken. This rise in temperatures is resulting in a plethora of problems for both aquatic and land species. Rising sea levels, extreme heat waves, inconsistent rain patterns, more frequent and more intense floods and wildfires, urban flooding, and increased multiple diseases are the few negative impacts of only a 1.1-degree rise.

Read more: The climate change enigma

Nevertheless, this is just the tip of the iceberg of what lies ahead

Understanding the repercussions of not taking action makes one wonders why there is a lack of urgency to deal with the global existential threat. Why don’t leaders declare an environmental emergency if they believe in it? Why are leaders not leading the way like they ought to? The answer to all these questions lies in the following paragraphs.

The economy is at the center of cause, effect, and solutions to the climate crisis. In 2009, at the fifteenth conference of parties (COP15), the developed countries agreed to secure $100bn annually by 2020 for climate mitigation and climate adaptation, especially in developing countries. However, this target has not yet been reached. However, much to our chagrin, this deadline to contribute $100bn annually was extended till 2023. Historically, the developed world has been responsible for climate change as they have emitted the highest percentage of CO2 emissions.

For example, the EU, the USA, and China contribute 69% of carbon emissions. Developing countries have the lowest share of damaging the environment, yet they are worst affected by its repercussions. The delay in allocating a committed share of funds further widens the climate divide between the global North and the global South.

Secondly, in Paris Climate Agreement 2015, it was agreed upon that all states would present their climate action to reduce carbon emissions in the form of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Although many countries pledged to transform their economies by adopting green energy sources to phase out fossil fuels gradually, the commitments are still insufficient to limit the temperature rise to 1.5oC. These are needed to increase up to seven times. This rapid transformation of industries and shift to renewable energies required a considerable amount of resources, capital, and advanced technology, which are unavailable to most countries.

Read more: Why it’s time to take the climate change crises seriously

Last but not least, we lack a global consensus. Climate change is a global challenge, and global challenges require global efforts and consensus. India and China, the two most significant contributors to carbon emissions in the world, have largely refrained from making pledges to phase out fossil fuel consumption. In COP26, India pledged to cut CO2 emissions by 45 % by 2070, over the 2005 level.

Although China announced its ambitious commitment to reach net zero emissions by 2060 last year, it is yet to witness how it reflects in its actions. Because till now, the actions of many countries have been in contradiction to their commitments, such as the increased fuel subsidies by G20 countries in 2020 and the construction of more coal power plants by China in 2020 than in previous years.

The above factors may make the reader despair and hopeless

However, there is a silver lining in the cloud. Our commitments have increased, and due to pressure from the public and civil society, it can be expected that governments across the globe will reflect their commitments into actions. With unity, we have restored the ozone layer over Antarctica.

Read more: Bakhtawar Bhutto blames climate change for flooding in Karachi

It gives us hope that we can also avert the global catastrophe of climate change by working together to commit and implement more ambitious plans to reduce CO2 emissions. The COP27 that will be convened in Nov2022 in Egypt will be the most watched and observed meeting by billions of people with the hope that this time our leaders will surely lead like they ought to. Let us hope this really happens this time.




Ansar Mahmood Bhutta is a Civil Engineer. He has formerly contributed to Global Village Space and The Asian Mirror and can be reached on Twitter at @ansarm779. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Global Village Space.