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Tuesday, May 21, 2024

I2U2 QUAD: An analysis of India’s extension in West Asia

I2U2 gives India access to Israel’s advanced defense technologies. Due to Israel being the major defense technology supplier to India that witnessed a significant 175% of increase in arms imports between 2015-2019 under Modi, I2U2 signals a substantial buildup of India’s defense and military technology, therefore, contributing to a strategic imbalance in South Asia.

The ‘I2U2’ first leaders’ summit held between India, Israel, the U.S., and UAE marked the construction of the security architecture in West Asia that stretches from the Strait of Malacca to the Suez Canal to create a balance of power in the tri-polar West Asian region by incorporation of India as a balancer and an extra-regional manager.

Abraham Accords 2020, signed between the Arab States with the UAE in lead and Israel, extended forth normalization and partnership agreements between Israel and extra-regional medium powers, particularly within the domain of defense and military technology, and economic connectivity, under new power dynamics. India is the primary facilitator and beneficiary of this ongoing US-led strategic engineering called multilateralism. Multilateralism is the strategic alignment wherein issue-specific partnerships are developed as deterrents to the transitioning multilateralism in the world order.

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Democracy vs Capitalism

Previously, the world order had Capitalism at its core; presently, it has democracy. In the transforming world order, democracies have been engaged to form a security network by collaborating on non-security issues. Therefore, I2U2 also indicates a security framework by taking into account six non-security domains of cooperation that include energy, space, transportation, food security, water, and health.

India’s nominated identity as the largest democracy in the world, despite human rights subjugation to religious-politic extremism, fixes it as the policing state for the U.S. under bilateral bargaining of relative interests in strategically significant regional theatres in the Indian Ocean that include South Asia, West Asia with the Middle East, in particular, the coast of East Africa, and the islands in the Indian Ocean in from East (Sri Lanka) to the West (Comoros Archipelago). Notably, India is a member of six out of nine multilaterals for defense and security cooperation from 2016 to 2021.

They include India-France-Australia Trilateral Dialogue 2020, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) 2017, Australia-Japan-India (AJI) Trilateral 2015, India-Italy-Japan Trilateral 2021, Australia-India-Indonesia Trilateral 2017, and Japan-US-India 2018. India’s membership in such multilateral forums, particularly in defense and security, deputizes India with decision-making authority even if India lacks it in international forums such as UNSC or NSG.

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Meeting the purpose of the I2U2, India and the UAE are assigned to function as the U.S. associate for building regional consensus on de-factor engagements with Israel, thereby impacting the Palestinian and Iranian interests based on their non-engagement with the U.S.-led medium power partnerships. I2U2 is similar to the multilateral partnership in the Indio-Pacific like the QUAD, which weights balance of power in favor of the democratic block and the U.S. by building consensus towards international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas which the U.S., otherwise, would not have been able to maintain since it is a non-signatory of the treaty.

Therefore, India in the Indian Ocean, and now in West Asia has assumed the charge of one of the U.S. facilitators in promoting its policy of the Free and Open Indo-Pacific and the Freedom of Navigation, particularly with respect to the Strait of Hormuz is the transit route to 30% of the total oil trade in the world. In June 2019, the Indian navy initiated maritime security operations named ‘SANKALP’ in the Gulf in order to ensure India’s safe transit through the Strait of Hormuz and also indicate the Indian military’s strategic presence, however, not deployment, in West Asia. Notably, India fulfills nearly 80% of its oil needs through oil imports.

Is India trying to establish its hegemony?

India’s approach as an international manager for the U.S. in the Middle East benefits India with the assertion of Indian strategic autonomy beyond South Asia. Moreover, it is in line with India’s global ambitions. I2U2 also provides India with military footprints in the Middle East. Significantly, it assures India’s economic and energy security and protects the Indian diaspora in the Gulf.

I2U2 is expected to add to the Indian economy in the long term through autonomous economic agreements on India’s terms rather than the terms defined by multilateral economic forums such as the RECP. The immediate economic effect of the partnership is an investment of two billion dollars and provision of technology for agriculture, and financial support for renewable energy in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujrat. India and UAE have also entered into a free trade agreement under the emerging partnership to increase their bilateral trade from fifty-nine billion dollars to one hundred billion dollars in 2027.

I2U2 gives India access to Israel’s advanced defense technologies. Due to Israel being the major defense technology supplier to India that witnessed a significant 175% of increase in arms imports between 2015-2019 under Modi, I2U2 signals a substantial buildup of India’s defense and military technology, therefore, contributing to a strategic imbalance in South Asia.

Read more: Challenges of QUAD and US Indo-Pacific strategy on the peaceful rise of China

The U.S. holds responsibility for providing Israel with India as a substitute for China as a potential buyer of Israel’s arms because, since the 1990s, the U.S. has been vetoing Israel’s arms trade with China. Israel’s surveillance and operational capabilities have been used by India in Kashmir and on LOC and LAC against Pakistan and China. Amidst India-China military standoff 2021, Israel leased Heron drones deployed on the LAC.

As far as Indian military deployment in West Asia is concerned, Indian military projection beyond Asia is compromised to India’s strategic rivalry in South Asia on two fronts that is China and Pakistan. Even in the case of QUAD, India is reluctant to engage militarily with the U.S. because it cannot afford a confrontation with China and Pakistan when it aims to pursue its economic ambitions and global level.

India would only resort to a military option in the Indian Ocean that serves India’s vital national interests. Other primary factors that would determine India’s calculated engagement in West Asia would be India’s escape from deliberate strategic rivalry with Iran in the Strait of Hormuz and, specifically, with China in the proximity of Djibouti and Bab-el-Mandeb.

However, India in the I2U2 is a cause of concern for the regional states in South and East Asia because this partnership strategically benefits India by filling it in as an international stakeholder in the strategic maritime theaters in the world that include the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean.



The writer is working as a Research Officer at the Strategic Vision Institute (SVI), a non-partisan think-tank based out of Islamabad, Pakistan. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Global Village Space.