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Sunday, May 26, 2024

Solar storm can cause an “internet apocalypse”

As solar activity increases, concerns are growing over the potential for a catastrophic event termed as the "internet apocalypse."

While the enchanting spectacle of the Northern Lights captivates people, the same solar storm energy responsible for this celestial display poses an unprecedented threat to the interconnected world. As solar activity increases, concerns are growing over the potential for a catastrophic event termed as the “internet apocalypse” by a researcher. Professor Peter Becker of George Mason University leads a groundbreaking project aimed at creating an early warning system to address this looming danger.

Confluence of Solar Activity

Becker highlights a unique convergence in human history, where heightened solar activity coincides with our increasing reliance on the internet. This intersection presents a potential vulnerability that could have far-reaching consequences for global connectivity and economic dependence on digital infrastructure.

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Solar SuperStorm Dynamics

Solar super storms, marked by solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), have the capacity to disrupt Earth’s magnetic field. Becker explains that while flares provide a visible indication, CMEs can unpredictably travel through space. Detecting their trajectory towards Earth offers approximately 18 to 24 hours of warning before they impact our planet.

Threat to Critical Infrastructure

Large blobs of plasma from CMEs can distort Earth’s magnetic field, posing risks to critical infrastructure. Becker draws attention to the vulnerability of the power grid, satellites, fibre optic cables, navigation systems, GPS, radio transmitters, and communication equipment. The potential consequences extend beyond mere disruptions, as inductive currents driven to the Earth’s surface can compromise supposedly secure electronic systems.

Carrington Event

Becker references the Carrington Event of 1859, the last time a CME reached Earth. It disrupted the telegraph system, causing sparks to fly off telegraph lines and even electrocuting some operators. Comparing the robust telegraph wires of that era to today’s delicate electronics, Becker emphasises the potential for widespread damage in the event of a similar solar storm.

Economic Disruption and Financial Impact

The economic fallout of a severe solar storm is significant, with Becker estimating a daily disruption to the U.S. economy alone in the range of $10-$20 billion. The fragility of electronic systems, coupled with their integral role in global commerce, highlights the potential for an extended period of economic turmoil if such an event occurs.

Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts

Becker’s team is actively monitoring the sun and modelling solar flares to develop an early warning system. With an 8-minute window between flares reaching Earth and the potential magnetic field disruption, timely action becomes crucial. The ability to put satellites in safe mode and take transformers offline from the grid offers mitigation possibilities. However, the long-term solution involves “hardening” the internet, a costly endeavour that most large corporations currently lack economic incentives to pursue.

Future Predictions and Preparedness

While predicting solar storms remains challenging, Becker suggests that the odds of a significant event disrupting the internet in the next decade are around 10%. As the solar cycle peaks and solar storms become more prevalent, the need for proactive measures and international collaboration becomes paramount to fortify our digital infrastructure against potential solar-related disasters.

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The intersection of increased solar activity and our profound dependence on the internet demands a concerted effort to safeguard against potential catastrophic disruptions. Professor Becker’s research sheds light on the urgency of developing early warning systems, implementing short-term mitigation strategies, and addressing the economic challenges of long-term internet hardening to secure our interconnected future.