By: Shahid Sattar and Eman Ahmed
The higher import bill and current account deficit (CAD) noted in recent months pose serious risks to the macroeconomic outlook, particularly Pakistan’s Balance of Payments. This has highlighted the need to take holistic action in achieving a trade balance, as both imports and exports present us with their own unique set of dynamics. While our last article pointed out why the expansion and development of exporting industries are essential for a healthy Balance of Payments, it is now important to adjust our lens to analyze the other side: excessive imports.
The highest commodity of imports in July 2021 was petroleum and crude products. Data from the Ministry of Petroleum revealed that total imports of oil and refined fuels went up by 24pc to about 10 million tonnes in the financial year which ended in June, and has increased exponentially thereafter.
The petroleum sector
The recent swings in LNG pricing have highlighted the detrimental impact of import dependence on a balance of payments and energy security. Minimizing import dependence on hydrocarbons, in particular, should be a primary objective. While export-led economic growth is critical for achieving a trade balance, efforts to curtail excessive imports, while identifying more sustainable sources of energy and expanding domestic petroleum production, are equally of the essence.
Pakistan’s economy is critically dependent on energy security, as access to affordable and consistent energy is the baseline for economic activity. The country is now facing another severe energy emergency wherein the coming winter months, the gas shortage will persist, leading to industrial shutdowns as well as domestic unrest. While Bangladesh provides us with an example of efficiently utilizing existing resources, the gas sector of Pakistan is in dire need of making a critical turnaround, which requires vision, authority and leadership. Effectively carrying out a petroleum exploration drive can lead to significant increases in domestic gas supply.
Read more: Barriers to Pakistan’s Export Led Growth
Pakistan’s exploration drive
Enhanced exploration must include wildcatting, a necessary measure to open up new areas and generate more exploration plays, as most of our exploration has been focused along already saturated areas. Furthering Pakistan’s exploration drive will require domestic petroleum companies to increase their exploration budgets manifold. In addition to a completely fresh outlook towards exploration, a sea change is required in the manner in which these companies are run. One such location which has potential yet remains largely untapped is Block 28, where a total of six structural prospects seen on satellite images are largely defined, while each possesses reserve potential of around the same as the giant Sui Gas field.
Industrial competitiveness requires a stable energy supply at affordable rates. A case in point is India, where industry-led economic growth has been aptly prioritized through the provision of competitive and consistent inputs to industries. The priority order for gas consumers in India is the reverse of Pakistan’s, with industrial energy provision at the top and domestic at the bottom, i.e. when a shortage occurs, gas is first supplied to industries and cut for domestic consumers. The same case exists for electricity. It is essential to note that industries such as fertilizer and steel are highly dependent on gas. Furthermore, the currently proposed moratorium for the supply of gas to captive power plants runs counter to the economic argument.
Pakistan’s favoring domestic over industrial consumption is a classic case of prioritizing short-term consumer satisfaction over long-term economic stability. Political influence plays an important role here, as appeasing voters with promises of the steady provision of energy is commonplace. Subsequently, the present allocation of gas resources is highly unsustainable for the economy in the long term. Policies must be reassessed keeping in mind the objective of achieving a healthy and sustainable trade balance.
LNG vs Petrol
The marginal cost of LNG at distribution for spot cargoes is Rs. 4590/MMBTU, which is far higher than that of petrol or any other petroleum product. This is then sold at a dirt-cheap price of Rs. 110/MMBTU to domestic consumers, translating to Rs. 3.6/liter Petrol (energy equivalent). Due to load profiling of the domestic sector, up to 1056 MMCFD of Natural Gas was supplied in January 2021 in SNGPL System even though the indigenous gas supply for system input is only around 765 MMCFD. In the short term, higher supply is required in order to rationalize the domestic gas market, along with measures to manage demand.
Due to high investments in gas-fired power plants, especially RLNG-N combined cycle, imports of energy rose sharply in Pakistan, thereby projecting that domestic production is in sharp decline (8.6% year on year FY 19 to FY 20). This coupled with inflated demand from the domestic sector, where pricing is not based on economic principles of scarcity and optimal utilization makes, sharply increased the country’s dependency on imports of LNG. The bottom line is that it is illogical for a cash-strapped country like Pakistan to compete in the global supply market where other players include Japan, China, Korea and Europe.
The reasons for the tight supply of LNG include the rebound of the global economy from Covid-19, the use of LNG as a transition fuel due to its low carbon footprint and compatibility with intermittent renewable energy, low hydro generation in some countries and low wind generation in Europe (seasonal), low Chinese and European storage levels, Chinese demand for gas to power, China’s trajectory set to overtake Japan as the number 1 LNG importer.
How can we improve efficiency?
To offset the conundrum of tight supply and expensive imports, measures must be taken to improve efficiency, as distribution losses in Pakistan’s power sector are approximately 18%, twice the international norm, whereas the UFG equivalent of direct losses is 14% – 7 times the international norm. Natural gas resources, which currently contribute 50% to Pakistan’s total energy supply, are depleting rapidly and those discovered are not being used efficiently. According to the Council of Common Interest (CCI), severe shortages of gas have been predicted in the coming years.
A shortage of roughly 500 MMcfd is expected during the winters of 2021-2022, which will inevitably shut down industries for at least 2-3 months and severely contract economic output. Irrespective of the shortage, the government must ensure an uninterrupted supply of gas to the export-oriented sector to avoid large-scale forex borrowing, which would become unavoidable. If economic growth is to become a national priority, the direct and indirect effects of the natural gas crisis must be assessed while simultaneously formulating a timely and efficient long-term action plan.
Pakistan has the potential to save up to 10-15% (10-12 MTOE) of primary energy supply through energy efficiency, but residential gas consumers have a limited incentive to shift to more efficient appliances because of low gas prices the lowest slab at Rs.120/MMBTU. Reducing the consumption of gas at the consumer level by improving efficiency can lead to significant savings on bills as well as decreasing pressure on the government to make scarce resources available. Making the use of cone baffles and gas geysers mandatory can enhance efficiency by saving up to 30 percent gas.
Looking at gas conservation methods
While it is essential to tackle Pakistan’s acute gas shortage, we must do so without compromising Pakistan’s trade balance. Diverting LNG towards domestic use rather than industrial use does not allow for any financial recovery, the impact of which on economic growth has been impressive. Meanwhile, the domestic sector is cross-subsidized by industry and other sectors, thus creating severe financial constraints and a gas sector circular debt. The government must strive for a more efficient gas sector while also formulating policies that are conducive to industrial sectors’ growth and the critical role played by exports for the economy of Pakistan.
Mr. Shahid Sattar, now Executive Director & Secretary General of All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA), has previously served as Member Planning Commission of Pakistan and an advisor to the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Water & Power. Eman Ahmed is a Research Analyst at APTMA. The views expressed by the writers do not necessarily represent Global Village Space’s editorial policy