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Friday, February 23, 2024

Years-long power struggle in Sudan: A complex political landscape

Sudan is experiencing political instability with power struggles resulting in violent clashes between the army and paramilitary forces. The situation is complex, involving factions within the government and military, regional and ethnic dynamics, and economic challenges. Efforts toward stability and democratic reforms face obstacles, and peaceful conflict resolution is needed. The international community should support Sudan’s transition towards stability and inclusivity.

Sudan, a nation with a long and turbulent history of political turmoil and power struggles, has once again been plunged into violence and chaos. In April 2023, fierce clashes erupted between the Sudanese army and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), triggering widespread concern and a call for peace throughout the region.

The RSF, formed in 2013 under the leadership of General Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as “Hemeti,” was initially created to quell the rebellion in the Darfur region but has since gained significant influence and power in Sudan. The group has been accused of heinous human rights abuses, including atrocities against civilians, and has been a source of tension within the country.

The recent clashes began in the capital city of Khartoum and quickly spread throughout the rest of Sudan, resulting in a deteriorating security situation. The exact reasons for the conflict are complex and multifaceted, but they are believed to be linked to ongoing power struggles between different factions within the Sudanese government and military.

Read more: Blinken speaks to Sudan generals, calls for ceasefire

Reports of human rights violations, including extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, and torture, have also emerged, further exacerbating the humanitarian crisis. The international community has expressed grave concern over the escalating violence, with calls for an immediate end to the clashes and the restoration of peace in Sudan. International fl ights to and from Khartoum have been suspended, and foreign nationals are being evacuated from the country due to the deteriorating security situation.

Once again, the clashes between the army and the RSF have shed light upon the fragile and volatile nature of Sudan’s political landscape. The country’s history is fraught with civil wars, coups, and political instability, and efforts to establish a stable and peaceful government have been met with significant challenges. Ongoing power struggles and conflicts between different factions within the Sudanese government and military continue to pose a severe threat to the country’s stability and security.


The roots of Sudan’s power struggles can be traced back to its colonial history when the country was under British rule. After gaining independence in 1956, Sudan struggled to establish a stable and inclusive government. Ethnic, religious, and regional divisions within the country often fueled political tensions, leading to periods of instability and conflict.

The military has played a central role in Sudan’s power struggles, wielding significant influence in the country’s politics. Sudan has experienced several military coups and transitions of power over the years, with the military often at the center of these changes. The current government, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, came to power after a coup in April 2019 that ousted long-time leader Omar al-Bashir.

However, the military’s involvement in politics has been a source of controversy, with calls for civilian-led governance and democratic reforms. The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), a protest movement that emerged in 2018, has been advocating for democratic reforms, an end to corruption, and respect for human rights. The movement played a crucial role in al-Bashir’s ousting and has continued to push for change in Sudan’s political landscape.

Read more: Bombardments rock Sudan capital for third day, US calls for ceasefire

In addition to power struggles between the military and the protest movement, regional and ethnic dynamics also play a role in Sudan’s political climate. The country is home to a diverse population with different ethnicities, religions, and cultural backgrounds. These divisions have often been exploited by various political factions to gain support and consolidate power. The regions of Darfur, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan, in particular, have been hotspots of conflict, with marginalized communities demanding greater political representation and autonomy.

Sudan’s economic challenges, marked by a struggling economy, high inflation, and a lack of essential services, have engendered a sense of public discontent and frustration. These concerns have been a primary impetus for the ongoing protest movement. Yet, the intricately woven web of power struggles that plagues Sudan’s political landscape renders finding a resolution to the issue, particularly complex and demanding.

As Sudan continues to grapple with these multifaceted political challenges, it is imperative to pursue sustained efforts toward realizing a peaceful and inclusive resolution. This will necessitate a genuine spirit of dialogue, compromise, and an unwavering commitment to democratic reforms and the preservation of human rights. To that end, all involved parties must prioritize peaceful conflict resolution and meaningful dialogue. It is paramount to ensure the safeguarding of civilian populations and the protection of human rights, as well as to work tirelessly towards finding a sustainable and all-encompassing solution to the challenges facing Sudan.

It is incumbent upon the international community to play a constructive role in supporting Sudan’s transition toward stability and democracy. This includes offering assistance in the form of resources, training, and guidance, as well as ensuring the protection of vulnerable populations and promoting accountability and transparency in governance. The road ahead is challenging, yet the potential for lasting peace, stability, and prosperity in Sudan makes the pursuit of a peaceful and inclusive resolution to the country’s political challenges all the more critical.

Read more: Sudan’s troubling path to democracy