Home Opinion Op-Ed Crisis of Governance in Pakistan

Crisis of Governance in Pakistan

Unless the political, administrative and financial powers and responsibilities are devolved to the elected representatives of the local governments, the crisis of governance will not dissipate. The real relief to the hapless people of this country can only result from the empowerment of the local government.

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Opinion |

There is a crisis of governance in Pakistan. And PTI should not shy away from accepting their responsibility in creating, and then perpetuating, this crisis.

Who is really responsible for the emergence of this crisis? Is it a result of people who occupy positions of power within the government? Or is it more a function of the ‘system’ that we live in? Has this crisis resulted from incompetence of individuals within PTI’s political team? Or is there something more sinister at play? Is the federal government to be blamed for lack of planning and anticipation? Or does the blame rest with the respective provincial governments?

These, and other such questions, must be honestly asked and answered, if we are to harbor any hope of fixing the litany of governance crisis we face today, and ensuring that such episodes are avoided in the future.

Wasim Akram plus, or Javed Miandad minus, can then focus on the job they were elected to do: help reform our legislative framework, and set course for policies that bring Pakistan in step with the 21st century

Let us start with a set of undeniable facts: PTI’s governance model, as pitched by Imran Khan in the lead-up to the 2018 general elections, has failed (thus far) to deliver on its promise. Usman Buzdar is not ‘Wasim Akram plus’. Looted money has not returned home. The ‘corrupt’ (as claimed by Imran Khan) have all managed to slip through the porous grasp of a meek prosecution. The entrenchment of corruption (per the recent Transparency International report) has only deepened. Unemployment remains rampant. Inflation has spiraled out of control. And no long-term economic revival plan seems to be in place.

In fact, many of the provincial governance issues – not directly within the control of Imran Khan) are also being tagged to the Federal Government. In Sindh, for example, the issue of rain water, of lack of rabies medication, of HIV outspread, or garbage collection, or even the malnutrition in Thar, fall squarely within the provincial domain of governance.

To this end, after promulgation of the 18th Constitutional Amendment (in 2010), the Provinces are responsible for issues such as health, medication, sanitary works and food procurement. The Federal Government has no role in these matters. However, the inept PPP government continues to blame the Federation for being the source of these problems, under the garb of insufficient funds being provided to the province of Sindh. And the political buck, consequently, stops at Imran Khan and his PTI.

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Making matters worse, in Punjab, PTI’s Usman Buzdar has repeatedly failed in anticipating (or countering) governance challenges. In its first monsoon season, in 2019, the Buzdar government failed in taking preventive measures against the spread of Dengue virus. Unlike the Shehbaz Sharif years, Buzdar government did not run the necessary awareness campaign, or enforce any of the preventive measures. There was no government drive to prevent water stagnation. No mechanism for periodic fumigation. No real focus on vaccination or blood drive. It was not until Dengue virus has started claiming lives, that Buzdar government sprung to action.

Fast forward a few months – the smog/fog season in Lahore. In anticipation of the terrible conditions (and in compliance of the honorable Lahore High Court orders), the brick-kilns across Punjab are scheduled to be shut down in October. And requisite administrative measures are taken to ensure that industrial emissions are monitored in early fall. The Buzdar government, however, snoozed on the job, resulting in smog conditions that were significantly worse than in the preceding years.

Imran Khan must reconsider a plotical shuffle at the helm of Punjab. No individual, even Buzdar, should be considered indispensable in the current crisis

We had barely come out of these crises, when suddenly, at the turn of the New Year, we were greeted with a wheat shortage crisis. This time, despite having more than adequate yield, the administrative mismanagement in Buzdar government resulted in a synthetic shortage, inflated prices, stock-hoarding, and a resulting inability of people to afford the wheat stock.

For all of these and other issues, when the Buzdar government could not meet the requisite minimum standards of governance, Imran Khan was naturally blamed for it. After all, his party was in power in Punjab. He had picked the Chief Minister. He is responsible for the policy of the party. However, under the 18th Constitutional Amendment, he has no authority to directly interfere in the functioning of Punjab. The Federal Government has no meaningful role in the functioning of the health sector (for Dengue) or the Agriculture sector (for Wheat) in Punjab.

What could Imran Khan do, in the situation, to better address the governance crisis in Punjab? Manage Punjab’s governance through appointing bureaucracy of his choice – reporting directly to him. This idea, however, has not been well received in the Buzdar establishment. A handful of PTI parliamentarians, edged on by the Chief Minister himself, have raised slogans about empowering the Chief Minister. In other words, disempowering the Imran Khan appointed bureaucracy. And this tussle has given wind to forces that wish to see Imran Khan’s political enterprise fail.

Read more: Pakistani Democracy: From Electoral Politics to Governance

As a result, the precarious political alliance, in the center and in Punjab, seems to be dwindling. Allies have repeatedly expressed their reservations against government policy. Factions within PTI (especially in Punjab) have voiced concern over Islamabad’s interference in the running of provincial matters. And the opposition political parties have started to voice hopes of political change in Punjab and (perhaps) in the center.

Can this crisis of governance be resolved? Is it only a function of an incompetent political team in Punjab and Sindh? Are personalities to be blamed? Or is there a larger structural solution available, regardless of the personalities involved.

There can be no denying that Buzdar and his team are not ‘Wasim Akram plus’. And that part of the problem emanates from the personalities involved. Imran Khan must reconsider a political shuffle at the helm of Punjab. No individual, even Buzdar, should be considered indispensable in the current crisis.

In Sindh, for example, the issue of rain water, of lack of rabies medication, of HIV outspread, or garbage collection, or even the malnutrition in Thar, fall squarely within the provincial domain of governance

However, there is a larger structural solution that has been ignored for too long. That of implementing Article 140 A of the Constitution, and devolving “political, administrative and financial responsibility and authority to the elected representatives of the local governments.” Unless this constitutional command is implemented, in letter and spirit, the crisis of governance will not dissipate at the grassroots level.

Yes, the provincial government must do their job diligently. Yes, the Federal Government must introduce better economic and governance policies. But the real relief to the hapless people of this country can only result from the empowerment of the local government.

Usman Buzdar, and his cabinet, are not the constitutionally envisioned service delivery mechanism. Neither is Murad Ali Shah and his coterie. These governments will be exposed for their lack of legislation – which is their primary function – if the service delivery is devolved to the local governments, as required by the Constitution of Pakistan.

Read more: Conference on “Constitutional Reforms, Governance & Implementation”

PM Khan must revisit his speeches and rhetoric from the pre-2018 years. And be reminded that he had promised an effective local governance system, which helps alleviate the plight of our people. Wasim Akram plus, or Javed Miandad minus, can then focus on the job they were elected to do: help reform our legislative framework, and set course for policies that bring Pakistan in step with the 21st century.

Saad Rasool is a lawyer based in Lahore. He has an LL.M. in Constitutional Law from Harvard Law School. He can be reached at saad@post.harvard.edu, or Twitter: @Ch_SaadRasool. This article originally appeared at The Nation and has been republished with the author’s permission. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Global Village Space.

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