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Saturday, April 13, 2024

Assessing India’s failed nuclear security

Amjed Jaaved is of the view that nuclear security is lax in India as the country has reported several incidents of nuclear thefts to international bodies. Despite this major security lapse, India remains out of international focus, unlike Pakistan.

Amid a raging pandemic in the southern Indian state of Maharashtra, the anti-terrorism squad arrested  (May 6, 20210) two persons (Jagar Jayesh Pandya and Abu Tahir Afzal Hussain Choudhry) for attempting to sell seven kilograms of highly radioactive uranium for offered price of about Rs. 21 crores.

The “gentlemen” had uncannily advertised the proposed sale online. As such, the authorities initially dismissed the advertisement as just another hoax. They routinely detained the “sellers-to-be” and forwarded a sample of their ware to the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Read more: World silent over India’s newly unearthed nuclear black market

They were shocked when the center reported that “the material was natural uranium”.  As such, the squad was compelled to book the duo under India’s Atomic Energy Act, 1962 at Nagpur police station.

Not a unique incident

The event, though shocking, is not one of its kind. Earlier, in 2016 also, two persons were arrested by Thane (Maharashtra) police while they were trying to sell eight to nine kilograms of depleted uranium for Rs. 24 crores.

It is surmised that the sale of uranium by scrap dealers in India is common. But, such events rarely come in limelight.

According to Anil Kakodar, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, “Factories using uranium as a counterweight in their machines are mandated to contact the Atomic Energy agencies and return uranium to them. They however resort to short cuts and sell the entire machine with uranium in scrap.”

Read more: India’s nuclear capabilities-a nightmare for South Asia

Indian media scarcely report such incidents. However, the Indian government sometimes reports such incidents to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to meet disclosure requirements.

According to international media reports (February 25, 2004), India reported 25 cases of “missing” or “stolen” radio-active material from its labs to the IAEA. Fifty-two percent of the cases were attributed to “theft” and 48% to the “missing mystery”.

India claimed to have recovered lost material in twelve of the total 25 cases. It, however, admitted that the 13 remaining cases remained mysterious.

Read more: India is allegedly misreporting nuclear weapon stockpile

More theft incidents

India reports such incidents to the IAEA to portray itself as a “responsible state”.  It is hard to believe that radioactive material could be stolen from nuclear labs without operators’ connivance.

Nine computers, belonging to India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation establishment at Metcalfe House, New Delhi, were stolen. India communicated 25 cases of ‘stolen or missing’ uranium to the IAEA.

Read more: India refuses to sign NPT in order to hang on to nuclear weapons

In different incidents, uranium in varying forms and quantities continues to be recovered from scrap dealers and others by Indian authorities. The recoveries include fifty-seven pounds of uranium in rod form, eight kilograms in granular form, two hundred grams in semi-processed form, besides twenty-five kilograms in radioactive form, stolen from the Bibi Cancer Hospital.

Also, the thieves stole three cobalt switches, worth Rs. 1.5 million, from Tata Steel Company laboratory at Jamshedpur (Jharkhand). A shipment of beryllium (worth $24 million), was caught in Vilnius, on its way to North Korea.

Read more: North Korea may resume nuclear tests this year: US intelligence

Taiwanese authorities had intercepted a ship carrying dual-use aluminum oxide from India to North Korea. A New Jersey-based Indian engineer Sitaram Ravi Mahidevan was indicted for having bypassed US export procedures to send blueprints of solenoid-operated valves to North Korea.

We know that the Taiwanese authorities had intercepted a ship, carrying dual-use aluminum oxide from India to North Korea.  The oxide is an essential ingredient of rocket casings and is, as such, prohibited for export to “rogue” countries.

Read more: India’s rising rogue behavior: silence of International community

Bashing Pakistan

Despite recurrent incidents of theft of uranium or other sensitive material from Indian nuclear labs, the IAEA never initiated a thorough probe into the lax security environment in government and private nuclear labs in India. However, the international media has a penchant for creating furore over uncorroborated nuclear lapses in Pakistan.

The Time magazine article ‘Merchant of Menace’, had reported that some uranium hexafluoride cylinders were missing from the Kahuta Research Laboratories. Pakistan’s then information minister and foreign-office spokesman had both refuted the allegation. Masood Khan (foreign office) told reporters, “The story is a rehash of several past stories.”

Read more: Why Pakistan has the most feared nuclear weapons program in the world

Similarly, Professor Shaun Gregory in his report ‘The Security of Nuclear Weapons’ contends that those guarding about 120 nuclear-weapon sites, mostly in northern and western parts of Pakistan, have fragmented loyalties. As such, they are easy prey to religious extremists.

Frederick W. Kagan and Michael O’Hanlon, also draw a gloomy portrait of the situation in Pakistan. In their article, published in The New York Times, dated November 18, 2007, they predicted that extremists would take over if rule of law collapses in Pakistan.

Read more: What’s causing extremism in Pakistan?

Those sympathetic with the Taliban and al-Qaeda may convert Pakistan into a state sponsor of terrorism. They pointed to Osama bin Laden’s meeting with Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Chaudhry Abdul Majeed, former engineers of Pakistan’s Atomic Energy Commission (having no bomb-making acumen).

They claimed that U.S. military experts and intelligence officials had explored strategies for securing Pakistan’s nuclear assets. One option was to isolate the country’s nuclear bunkers. Doing so would require saturating the area, surrounding the bunkers with tens of thousands of high-powered mines dropped from the air, packed with anti-tank and anti-personnel munitions.

The panacea, suggested by them, was that Pakistan’s nuclear material should be seized and stashed in some “safe” place like New Mexico.

Read more: Why we do not need to worry about a Nuclear War between India and Pakistan

Pakistan protecting its nuclear weapons

The fact is that the pilloried Pakistani engineers had no knowledge of weaponization. The critics mysteriously failed to mention that Pakistan is a party to the UN Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials.

The steps taken by Pakistan to protect its nuclear materials and installations conform to international standards. The National Command Authority, created on February 2, 2000, has made fail-safe arrangements to control the development and deployment of strategic nuclear forces.

Read more: Pakistan ‘most improved’ country for nuclear security: NTI Index

Pakistan’s nuclear regulatory authority had taken necessary steps for the safety, security, and accountability of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons, facilities, and materials even before the 9/11 incident.

These controls include the functional equivalent of the two-man rule and permissive action links (PALs). The indigenously-developed PALs are bulwarks against inadvertent loss of control or accidental use of weapons. So far, there has been no security lapse in any of Pakistan’s nuclear establishments.

Read more: While celebrating Nuclear Security Index improvement, Pakistan needs to act cautiously

No possibility of nuclear terrorism

Abdul Mannan, in his paper titled “Preventing Nuclear Terrorism in Pakistan: Sabotage of a Spent Fuel Cask or a Commercial Irradiation Source in Transport”, has analyzed various ways in which acts of nuclear terrorism could occur in Pakistan.

He has fairly reviewed Pakistan’s vulnerability to nuclear terrorism through hypothetical case studies. He concludes that the threat of nuclear terrorism in Pakistan is a figment of imagination, rather than a real possibility.

Read more: Pakistan’s nuclear weapons safety and security – Zafar Nawaz Jaspal

There are millions of radioactive sources used worldwide in various applications. Only a few thousand sources, including Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90, Am-241, Cf-252, Pu-238, and RA-226 are considered a security risk.

The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) has enforced a mechanism of strict measures for administrative and engineering control over radioactive sources from cradle to grave.

Read more: Nuclear power: clean, cheap, and sustainable source of energy for Pakistan

It conducts periodic inspections and physical verifications to ensure the security of the sources. The Authority has initiated a Five-Year National Nuclear-Safety-and-Security-Action Plan to establish a more robust nuclear-security regime.

It has established a training center and an emergency coordination center, besides deploying radiation-detection equipment at each point of nuclear-material entry in Pakistan, supplemented by vehicle/pedestrian portal monitoring equipment where needed.

Read more: Pakistan ready to thwart any attacks on its Security & Integrity: Imran Khan

Fixed detectors have been installed at airports, besides carrying out a random inspection of personnel luggage. All nuclear materials are under strict regulatory control right from import until their disposal.

Will India face consequences?

Nuclear controls in India and the USA are not more stringent than Pakistan’s. It is not understood why the media does not deflect their attention to the fragile nuclear-security environment in India. It is unfortunate that the purblind critics fail to see the gnawing voids in India’s nuclear security.

The ‘research work’ by well-known scholars reflects visceral hatred against Pakistan. The findings in fresh ‘magnum opuses’ are a re-hash or amalgam of the presumptions and pretensions in earlier-published ‘studies’.

Read more: India scampers for explanations after report of Nuclear plant hack

It is time that the West deflected its attention to India where movements of nuclear materials, under the 123 expansion plan, are taking place between nuclear-power plants sprawling across different states.

Above all, will the international media and the IAEA look into open market uranium sales in India?

Mr. Amjed Jaaved has been contributing freelance for over fifty years. His articles stand published in dailies at home and abroad (Nepal. Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, et. al.). He is the author of eight e-books including Terrorism, Jihad, Nukes, and other Issues in Focus. The views expressed in the article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Global Village Space.