Policing the Ladakh border: a task and a half for India

A retired Indian general explains the topography of the forbidding region of Ladakh, and details the issues that Indian soldiers have to face. Indeed, Ladakh is certainly not an adventure for the faint of heart.

Policing the Ladakh border

Death is a real and constant danger for the soldiers serving on India’s Himalayan border with China, but until a deadly brawl on June 15 the only killers since 1975 have been the topography and the elements. Policing the Ladakh border is one of the most difficult tasks for the Indian military, as it has to contend with the full force of nature along with the danger of sudden death from the enemy.

“We get more than 100 casualties every year just due to terrain, weather conditions, avalanches… There is constant danger,” said retired Lt. General DS Hooda, who until 2016 headed India’s Northern Command.

“You’re talking about 14-15,000 feet (4,300-4,600 metres). It takes a huge toll on your physical and mental condition,” Hooda told AFP after Monday’s brutal hand-to-hand battle with fists, rocks and clubs which saw the first Indian combat deaths with China in over four decades.

Galwan Valley’s impossible terrain complicates policing the Ladakh border

In the “cold desert” of the Galwan river valley in the Ladakh region where the fighting took place, winter temperatures can plunge below minus 30 Celsius (minus 22 Fahrenheit), cracking gun barrels and seizing up machinery.

There are few roads so troops — who are fed a special high-protein diet — must slog through the thin air themselves, carrying their own equipment as they navigate treacherous terrain.

Read more: Will the Chinese Dragon and the Indian Tiger go to War?

For those who get injured or fall sick “evacuation becomes an enormous challenge,” Hooda said. Getting them to a helipad “can take hours”, and as soon as night falls, it’s too dangerous for helicopters to fly.

This may be why the initial death toll of three shot up to 20 late on Tuesday.

Seventeen other troops critically injured in the clashes, which lasted until after midnight, were “exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the high altitude terrain” and succumbed to their injuries, the army said.

Bitter cold bites Indian soldiers; imperils survival

The terrain is so high that soldiers need time to acclimatise to their new posting or they run the risk of serious altitude sickness that can kill even a healthy young person in hours.

“For an average human being who is not a resident of that place, survival in itself is a huge challenge,” said Colonel S Dinny, who until 2017 commanded an Indian battalion in the region.

Read more: Repercussions of tensions between India and China for Asia

“It is one of the toughest places to serve as a soldier,” he said.

Normally soldiers do a two-year posting there, broken up by periods of leave. Those who smoke quickly kick the habit.

“With such low oxygen plus the weather plus the smoking, the chances of getting a heart attack shoot up,” Dinny added.

Extremely difficult for Indians to see, hear or breathe

The cold and the high altitude affects eyesight, adding to troops’ disorientation. Weather, which can change quickly with little warning, and the hilly terrain can impair radio communication.

Adding to the confusion is the fact that the “Line of Actual Control” (LAC) isn’t properly demarcated, meaning that Indian and Chinese troops can bump into each other and believe the other side has trespassed.

“The maps have not even been exchanged so that the other person knows what someone is claiming. There are no boundary markers,” said Dinny.

Read more: Galwan Valley clash: Chinese Foreign Office releases timeline

To avoid escalations, both sides have over the years developed detailed protocols on the procedures to follow — while also agreeing that neither side shall open fire.

If rival patrols bump into each other, they keep their distance and unfurl banners warning each other they have left their territory and should turn back.

Apart from occasional flare-ups, when they meet, the troops conduct themselves like “professional soldiers serving their respective countries, they treat each other with that courtesy,” Dinny said.

China and India tensions further complicate policing of the Ladakh border

But in recent months confrontations have increased with both sides building up troops and infrastructure. China appears to have been particularly irked by India building a new road.

China, according to New Delhi, is encroaching further into new areas, including some of the northern shore of the Pangong Tso lake and the Galwan valley which China now lays claim to in its entirety.

Read more: Three Indians killed in Ladakh clash with China

In May there were two punch-ups before the deadly clash in June which reportedly saw Chinese troops attack the Indians with nail-studded batons, rocks and fists.

“It is time we revisit our protocol and our rules of engagement so that any disagreements can be handled in a more military fashion rather than fighting it out like goons on the street,” Hooda said.

AFP with additional input by GVS News Desk

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