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A survey-based study looking at chocolate consumption and depression finds that people who eat dark chocolate are less likely to report depressive symptoms. What do these findings mean, and can we trust them?
Depression vs Sadness
Feeling sad is an integral part of the depression, but they are not the same. A number of life events can leave people feeling sad or unhappy. The loss or absence of a loved one, divorce, loss of job or income, financial trouble, or issues at home can all affect mood in a negative way.
A survey-based study looking at chocolate consumption and depression finds that people who eat dark chocolate are less likely to report depressive symptoms.
A person experiencing sadness can usually find some relief from crying, venting, or talking out frustrations. More often than not, sadness has links to a specific trigger.
However, depression is a mental disorder that has an overpowering effect on many parts of a person’s life. It can occur in people of any gender or age and alters behaviours and attitudes.
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- feelings of discouragement
- a lack of motivation
- a loss of interest in activities that the individual once found enjoyable
In severe cases, the person may think about isolation or attempt suicide. These make it clear to us that clinically diagnosed depression depends on the patient on doctor’s prescription and therapy, unlike a one-off emotionally difficult day.
Research on chocolate and depression
Over the years, chocolate has been the focus of a great deal of research. Thanks to its flavor and texture, chocolate is a popular food. As a result, a large number of people tend to read and share any studies that investigate its potential health benefits. Overall, its high sugar and fat content make chocolate a snack for people to enjoy in moderation, but consumers and experts are keen to find hidden depths to this silky wonder.
Feeling sad is an integral part of depression, but they are not the same. A number of life events can leave people feeling sad or unhappy.
The most recent addition to chocolate’s body of research comes from University College London (UCL) in the United Kingdom. The UCL team worked in conjunction with scientists from the University of Calgary and Alberta Health Services Canada.
The title of the UCL press release is, “People who eat dark chocolate less likely to be depressed,” which is a bold header, indeed. Before we continue, it is worth explaining that, as far as we can tell, this study did not receive funding from any chocolate manufacturers. The scientists published their results in the journal Depression & Anxiety.
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Why study chocolate and depression?
Globally, depression is a sizable issue. Currently, talking therapies and medication are the most common treatments. As the authors explain, talking therapies are often oversubscribed, so doctors prescribe most people antidepressants.
However, these medications do not work for everyone. Also, according to the authors of the current study, about half of the people who receive a prescription for these drugs stop taking them within 6 weeks of beginning treatment.
Feeling low? Scientists have shown that dark chocolate could boost your mood and relieve the symptoms of depression. Adults who eat dark chocolate have 70% lower odds of reporting depressive symptoms than those who eat no chocolate at all. A bar of Bournville anyone? pic.twitter.com/qk9Mbq2oKc
— Graham Hambly (@PQMagazine) August 2, 2019
Finding lifestyle interventions that can improve depressive symptoms is a priority. Physical activity appears to benefit some people with depression, but it does not help everyone, and not everyone is physically able to exercise.
Over the years, other scientists have also turned to dietary interventions to reduce depressive symptoms, with some success. Along these lines, the authors of the latest study explain that “[o]ne commonly consumed foodstuff postulated to have mood‐enhancing properties is chocolate.”
However, over the years, there have only been a few studies looking at whether chocolate truly can elevate mood in a clinically relevant way, and these experiments have produced mixed results.
A more thorough approach
According to the authors, earlier studies did not account for a wide enough range of variables, and none looked at how the type of chocolate might influence the findings.
Over the years, other scientists have also turned to dietary interventions to reduce depressive symptoms, with some success.
So, in their new study, the scientists controlled for a large number of potentially confounding variables, including weight, height, marital status, education, ethnicity, income, levels of education, smoking, and other health conditions. They also analyzed dark chocolate and non-dark chocolate separately.
The scientists took data from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After excluding individuals who were underweight or had diabetes, they had 13,626 participants aged 20 years or older.
Read more: Can chocolate prevent type-2 diabetes?
They assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire, which is a standard diagnostic tool for mental health disorders. Information regarding chocolate consumption came from two 24-hour dietary recalls. The team took the first one in a face-to-face interview and the second via a telephone interview 3–10 days later.
Is it good news?
After taking into account the relevant variables, the researchers concluded that, overall, there was no association between chocolate consumption and a reduction in depressive symptoms. However, the story changed when they looked specifically at dark chocolate. The authors report:
“[I]ndividuals who reported any dark chocolate consumption had 70% lower odds of reporting clinically relevant depressive symptoms than those who did not report any chocolate consumption.”
They also found that individuals who ate the most chocolate, regardless of its type, were less likely to report clinically relevant depressive symptoms than those who consumed no chocolate.
In total, the findings add another layer to a relatively muddled collection of findings. Eating dark chocolate may or may not relieve depressive symptoms. While we await further research, moderation is probably the wisest path to tread.